p.9 Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970
p.12 Peter Cook, Sponge City, 1974
Sponge City, otherwise known as 'the Sponge Building', provided a dramatic n radical intervention in architectural debate when it was 1st presented by Cook in 1975 at 'Art Net', his architecture gallery in London. The project turned on their heads previous assumptions about the pre-eminence of buildings over the landscape field.
Recombinant Landscapes in the American City - Grahame Shane p.24
p.31 Stoner Meek Architecture & Urban Design, Pell Mall, Vallejo Plaza, Vallejo, California, 2002-03
In the 2002 LA Forum for Architecture & Urban Design 'Dead Malls' competition, 1 of the prize-winning entries by Stoner Meek Architecture & Urban Design of San Francisco proposed turning the abandoned Vallejo Plaza Mall into an 'ecological retailing node'. The mall building was taken apart except for a few fragments that were retained as isolated pavilions in a new ecological landscape for windmills on a wind farm, a bowling green, a small golf range and a bird sanctuary set among the islands in the retention pond that partially replaced the parking lot. A franchise sold eco-cars from some of the islands reached by bridges.
p.36 Balmori Associates & HOK Planning Group, St Louis Waterfront, St Louis, Missouri, Illinois, 2006-
Hoping to attract people to the riverfront n encourage development up n down it - as well as across the Mississipi River in Illinois - the City of St Louis, non-profit Great Rivers Greenway District, National Park Service, Metro transportation system n Downtown Now organised a competition from which this scheme emerged as the winner. It consists of a whole series of floating islands n walkways along a 1.219 metre long shore, with integrated bicycle n pedestrian paths, a terraced riverwalk, event areas for large gatherings n docking for riverboats.
p.38 Patricia Johanson, Fair Park Lagoon, Dallas, Texas, 1981
environmentally degraded lagoon became functioning ecosystem when artist created new concrete edges n bridges shaped like native plants. planted bulrushes, wild rice n tall grasses that root in shallow water along shoreline to provide shelter n food for small animals n birds n, added water lilies n irises surrounded by causeway shaped like tip of the fern, paths for people based on twisted roots delta duck-potato; thinner stems rise out of the water to provide perches for birds, lea-like elements towards centre of lagoon form safe islands for animals; other 'leaves' along the shore create step seating n overlooks.
p.39 Field Operations (James Corner), Lifescape Park @ the Fresh Kilss landfill, Staten Island, New York, 2001 competition, construction of first phase due for completion 2008
new ecological n recreational park to be created on top of one of biggest garbage dumps in world, said to be visible from the moon, plan for new park draws on fact that woods n nesting areas managed to develop even when landfill was active. will add a whole series of wetlands n natural habitats interspersed with places for boating, cycling, ball games n outdoor concerts.
p.46 Margie Ruddick/WRT landscape architects, Marpillero Pollack Architects (MPA) n Leni Schwendinger, Queens Plaza, Queens, New York, due for completion 2009
project will reorganise confusing fragmented site where several elevated trains, subways n roadways collide with residential neighbourhoods n commercial services by adding bew seating, lighting shelters, pathways, hydrology n plantings that will create a sense of place